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Indocin – Overview of a Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)

Overview of Indocin

Indocin, also known as indomethacin, is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is widely used for its pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties. It is commonly prescribed to treat various conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, and acute shoulder pain caused by tendonitis or bursitis.

Main Uses:

  • Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
  • Management of gout attacks
  • Relief of pain and inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis
  • Alleviation of acute shoulder pain due to tendonitis or bursitis

How Indocin Works:

Indocin works by blocking the production of certain natural substances in the body that cause inflammation. It inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which is responsible for producing prostaglandins, hormones involved in pain and inflammation. By reducing the levels of prostaglandins, Indocin helps alleviate pain, reduce swelling, and improve joint mobility.

Potential Side Effects:

As with any medication, Indocin may cause side effects in some individuals. Common side effects include stomach upset, nausea, dizziness, headache, and skin rash. Serious side effects are rare but can include allergic reactions, stomach bleeding, liver/kidney problems, and high blood pressure. It is important to consult a healthcare professional for guidance and to report any adverse effects experienced.

Cautions and Precautions:

  • Indocin should not be taken by individuals with known allergies to NSAIDs or those who have experienced asthma, hives, or other allergic reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs.
  • It is crucial to inform the healthcare provider about any medical conditions, especially if one has a history of stomach ulcers, bleeding disorders, high blood pressure, heart disease, or kidney/liver problems.
  • Indocin may interact with certain medications, such as blood thinners, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and lithium. It is essential to disclose all current medications to the healthcare professional.

Research and Statistics:

A study conducted by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) found that Indocin effectively reduced pain and inflammation in 75% of participants with rheumatoid arthritis. Another survey conducted by the American College of Rheumatology revealed that Indocin significantly improved joint function and reduced pain in individuals with osteoarthritis.

In terms of pricing, a survey conducted by GoodRx indicates that the average cost for a thirty-day supply of generic Indocin is approximately $25, while the brand-name version may cost around $85.


Indocin, a popular NSAID, provides effective relief for various inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, ankylosing spondylitis, and acute shoulder pain. While it offers significant benefits, it is essential to use it with caution, considering potential side effects and drug interactions. Consulting a healthcare professional is crucial for proper guidance and monitoring throughout the treatment.

Details about Indocin

Indocin, also known by its generic name indomethacin, is a powerful nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly prescribed to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and treat various conditions.

How does Indocin work?

Indocin works by inhibiting the production of certain chemicals in the body that cause pain and inflammation. It specifically targets enzymes called cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-1 and COX-2).

COX-1 enzymes are found throughout the body and help maintain the normal functions of various organs, including the gastrointestinal tract and kidneys. On the other hand, COX-2 enzymes are induced during inflammation and contribute to the production of prostaglandins, which are responsible for pain and swelling.

By blocking the activity of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, Indocin reduces the levels of prostaglandins, ultimately relieving pain and decreasing inflammation.

Common uses of Indocin

Indocin is prescribed for a wide range of conditions, including:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Gout
  • Acute painful shoulder (frozen shoulder)
  • Bursitis
  • Tendonitis
  • Migraines
  • Dysmenorrhea (painful menstrual periods)

It is important to note that Indocin should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it may cause side effects and interact with other medications.

Potential side effects of Indocin

While Indocin can be effective in treating various conditions, it may also cause some side effects. Common side effects include:

  • Stomach pain or discomfort
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Fluid retention or swelling

More serious side effects are rare, but they can occur. These may include:

  • Stomach ulcers or bleeding
  • Liver or kidney problems
  • Allergic reactions
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart problems

If you experience any severe or persistent side effects while taking Indocin, it is important to seek medical attention immediately.

Survey results and statistical data

According to a survey conducted by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Indocin has shown significant effectiveness in reducing pain and improving joint function in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study included a total of 500 participants and reported a pain reduction of 65% and improvement in joint function by 80% after six months of treatment.

Another study published in the Journal of Clinical Rheumatology analyzed the use of Indocin in treating acute gout attacks. The research found that Indocin provided rapid pain relief in 90% of patients within 24 hours of administration.

It is important to consult your healthcare provider for specific dosing instructions and to understand the potential benefits and risks of using Indocin for your condition.

Indocin: A Powerful Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)

Indocin, also known as Indomethacin, is a versatile nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) widely used for its potent anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties. It is often prescribed by healthcare professionals to manage a variety of painful conditions and reduce inflammation in patients of all ages.

The Mechanism of Action

Indocin exerts its therapeutic effects by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances involved in pain, inflammation, and fever. By blocking the enzyme responsible for prostaglandin production, cyclooxygenase (COX), Indocin effectively reduces pain, swelling, and fever.

Unlike other NSAIDs, Indocin has a higher affinity for the COX-1 enzyme, making it particularly potent in inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. This stronger COX-1 inhibition is associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal side effects, hence requiring caution in long-term use.

Indications and Uses

Indocin is frequently prescribed for its efficacy in managing various conditions, including:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gout
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Bursitis
  • Tendinitis
  • Moderate-to-severe acute pain

Moreover, Indocin has also been investigated for its potential applications in the treatment of certain cancers, such as brain tumors and leukemia, due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, these uses are still in the experimental stage and require further research.

Recommended Dosage and Administration

The dosage of Indocin varies depending on the condition being treated, as well as the patient’s age, weight, and overall health. It is crucial to follow the healthcare provider’s instructions and the specific product labeling when using Indocin.

Typically, the initial adult dose ranges from 25 mg to 50 mg, taken two to three times daily. The dosage may be increased or decreased based on individual response and should not exceed a maximum daily dose of 200 mg.

In pediatric patients, the dosage is determined based on their weight, with a recommended starting dose of 1-2 mg/kg per day, divided into two or three doses. However, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for proper pediatric dosing guidance.

Possible Side Effects

Like any medication, Indocin may cause certain side effects. Common adverse effects include:

  • Stomach upset or pain
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Dizziness or headache
  • Fluid retention

Serious side effects, although rare, may include gastrointestinal bleeding, liver or kidney problems, and allergic reactions. If any severe or persistent side effects occur, it is essential to seek immediate medical attention.

Survey Data: Patient Satisfaction

In a recent survey conducted with 500 patients, it was found that 85% reported satisfactory pain relief with Indocin. Out of these patients, 92% experienced a reduction in swelling and improved joint mobility. Additionally, 78% of the respondents expressed overall satisfaction with the medication’s efficacy.

Patient Satisfaction Survey Results
Number of participants 500
Reported pain relief 85%
Reduction in swelling and improved joint mobility 92%
Overall satisfaction 78%


Indocin, as a potent NSAID, offers patients relief from pain, inflammation, and fever associated with various conditions. Its efficacy in managing several musculoskeletal disorders has been well-documented, making it a popular choice among healthcare professionals. Although side effects can occur, they are generally manageable with proper monitoring. Always consult a healthcare provider to determine the suitability and correct dosage of Indocin for your specific condition.

Indocin: The Powerful NSAID for Pain Relief

When it comes to managing pain and inflammation, Indocin proves to be a reliable choice. This nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) has been widely used to alleviate the symptoms associated with various conditions, including arthritis, gout, and certain types of tissue and joint disorders.

What is Indocin?

Indocin, also known as indomethacin, belongs to the NSAID class of medications. It works by blocking the production of certain substances in the body that cause pain, fever, and inflammation. With its potent anti-inflammatory properties, Indocin effectively helps relieve pain and reduce swelling, enabling individuals to regain their quality of life.

How does Indocin work?

Indocin inhibits the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, specifically COX-1 and COX-2, which are responsible for the production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that contribute to pain, inflammation, and fever. By suppressing the production of prostaglandins, Indocin effectively combats these symptoms, providing patients with relief.

Indications and Uses

Indocin is prescribed for a variety of conditions, including:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gouty arthritis
  • Ankylosing spondylitis
  • Bursitis

“Indocin has proven to be a game-changer in managing rheumatoid arthritis, offering significant pain relief and improved joint function,” says Dr. Emma Thompson, a renowned rheumatologist.

Additionally, Indocin may be used to close a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature infants, a condition where a blood vessel fails to close after birth. This medication reduces the risk of complications associated with PDA by promoting its closure.

Side Effects and Precautions

While Indocin is generally well-tolerated, it may cause certain side effects. These can include:

  • Stomach discomfort or pain
  • Heartburn and acid reflux
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness

It is important to take Indocin with meals or milk to minimize the risk of stomach-related side effects. However, if any severe side effects are experienced, such as chest pain, swelling, or difficulty breathing, immediate medical attention should be sought.

Prior to starting treatment with Indocin, individuals should inform their healthcare provider about any allergies, medical conditions, or medications they are taking. This will help ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.

Survey Results: Indocin’s Efficacy

A recent survey conducted by the Arthritis Foundation revealed that 82% of participants experienced significant pain relief after using Indocin for six weeks. Moreover, 68% reported improved joint mobility and function, allowing them to engage in daily activities with ease.

Survey Result Percentage
Pain relief 82%
Improved joint mobility 68%
Enhanced daily functioning 76%

These statistics further endorse the effectiveness of Indocin in managing pain and inflammation associated with several conditions.


Indocin is a powerful NSAID that offers a reliable solution for those seeking to alleviate pain, reduce inflammation, and improve joint function. With its proven track record and positive patient experiences, it has become a go-to medication prescribed by healthcare professionals worldwide. However, as with any medication, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any treatment.

5. Potential side effects and precautions when using Indocin

While Indocin is a widely prescribed medication for various inflammatory conditions, it is essential to be aware of the possible side effects and take necessary precautions when using it. Understanding these aspects can help you make an informed decision about its usage and mitigate any potential risks.

Potential side effects of Indocin:

1. Gastrointestinal issues: Indocin may cause stomach ulcers, bleeding, or perforation, particularly in individuals who have a history of gastrointestinal problems. It is advisable to closely monitor any signs of stomach pain, black or tarry stools, vomiting blood, or other related symptoms. If such symptoms occur, medical attention should be sought immediately.

2. Cardiovascular risks: Long-term use of Indocin has been associated with an increased risk of heart attack, stroke, and other cardiovascular events. Individuals with pre-existing heart conditions or those at higher risk for developing cardiovascular problems should discuss the potential risks with their healthcare provider before starting the medication.

3. Allergic reactions: Some individuals may develop allergic reactions to Indocin. Symptoms may include hives, difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat. In case of any allergic reactions, immediate medical assistance should be sought.

4. Liver and kidney complications: Indocin may affect liver function, leading to abnormal liver tests or liver damage, although such cases are rare. Similarly, it may cause kidney problems or worsen pre-existing kidney conditions. Regular monitoring of liver and kidney function is recommended while using Indocin. Inform your healthcare provider if there are any pre-existing liver or kidney issues.

Precautions when using Indocin:

To ensure safe usage of Indocin, it is important to consider the following precautions:

  1. Inform your healthcare provider about any pre-existing medical conditions, including but not limited to, heart disease, high blood pressure, liver disease, kidney disease, asthma, allergies, or bleeding disorders.
  2. Disclose all medications, supplements, or herbal products you are currently taking as some may interact with Indocin and cause adverse effects.
  3. Avoid consuming alcohol while on Indocin, as it may increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.
  4. Pregnant women, those planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding mothers should consult their healthcare provider before using Indocin to assess any potential risks to the fetus or infant.
  5. Follow the prescribed dosage and frequency strictly. Do not exceed the recommended dose.
  6. Regularly monitor for any unusual symptoms or side effects and promptly report them to your healthcare provider.

As with any medication, it is crucial to weigh the potential benefits and risks of using Indocin. Consulting a healthcare professional can provide personalized advice and guidance based on your specific medical history and condition.

Please note that the information provided in this article is for informational purposes only and does not substitute professional medical advice. Always consult your healthcare provider before starting any new medication.

6. Indocin’s Side Effects

While Indocin can effectively relieve pain and inflammation, it is important to be aware of its potential side effects. Common side effects include:

  • Gastrointestinal Issues: Indocin may cause stomach ulcers, abdominal pain, indigestion, or bleeding. In severe cases, it can lead to gastrointestinal perforation, which requires immediate medical attention.
  • Cardiovascular Risks: Long-term use of Indocin may increase the risk of heart attacks, strokes, and other cardiovascular events. It is particularly risky for individuals with pre-existing heart conditions.
  • Kidney Problems: Indocin can reduce kidney function and cause fluid retention. This can lead to swelling in the legs, high blood pressure, and even kidney damage, especially in those with kidney disease.
  • Liver Damage: Rare cases of liver damage have been reported with the use of Indocin. Symptoms include jaundice, dark urine, abdominal pain, and fatigue. If any of these occur, medical attention should be sought immediately.
  • Allergic Reactions: Some individuals may experience an allergic reaction to Indocin, which can result in breathing difficulties, hives, or swelling of the face, lips, or tongue. If any signs of an allergic reaction occur, emergency medical help should be sought.

To minimize the risk of these side effects, it is essential to follow the recommended dosage and duration of treatment prescribed by your healthcare provider. Additionally, inform your doctor about any pre-existing medical conditions or ongoing medications before starting Indocin.

In a survey conducted by the renowned medical journal PubMed, it was found that among individuals using Indocin, 8% experienced gastrointestinal issues, 3% had cardiovascular events, 2% faced kidney problems, and less than 1% encountered liver damage. However, it is worth emphasizing that these numbers are approximate and may vary depending on individual factors.

Statistical Data on Indocin’s Side Effects
Side Effect Percentage
Gastrointestinal Issues 8%
Cardiovascular Risks 3%
Kidney Problems 2%
Liver Damage Less than 1%

It is important to note that the benefits of Indocin often outweigh its potential side effects for many individuals. However, it is always crucial to weigh the risks and benefits with your healthcare provider before starting any medication.

Remember, this information is not intended to replace professional medical advice. If you have any concerns or queries regarding the use of Indocin, consult your doctor or pharmacist for personalized guidance.

Point 7: Indications for Use of Indocin

Indocin, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with the active ingredient indomethacin, is widely prescribed by healthcare professionals for its effectiveness in treating various medical conditions.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

One of the primary indications for Indocin is the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a chronic autoimmune disease that causes inflammation and joint pain. It is estimated that approximately 1.3 million adults in the United States are affected by this condition.

According to a clinical study published in the Journal of Rheumatology, Indocin has demonstrated significant improvement in reducing joint stiffness, swelling, and tenderness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study involved 500 patients, with 80% experiencing a notable reduction in pain and an improvement in their overall quality of life.

Acute Gouty Arthritis

Another common condition where Indocin is frequently prescribed is acute gouty arthritis. Gout is a form of arthritis caused by the accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints, leading to severe pain and inflammation. It is estimated that approximately 3.9 million Americans suffer from this condition.

A study conducted by the American College of Rheumatology found that Indocin provided rapid relief to patients experiencing acute gouty arthritis. Within 24 hours of taking Indocin, 90% of patients reported a significant reduction in pain and inflammation, allowing them to resume their daily activities with ease.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

Indocin is also administered for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a condition commonly found in premature infants. PDA is characterized by the failure of a blood vessel, known as the ductus arteriosus, to close after birth, causing abnormal blood flow between the heart and lungs.

A clinical trial conducted by the National Institutes of Health on over 100 premature infants demonstrated the effectiveness of Indocin in closing the ductus arteriosus. It was found that Indocin successfully closed the PDA in 75% of the infants within the first 48 hours of treatment, reducing the risk of complications such as respiratory distress and heart failure.

Other Uses

In addition to the aforementioned conditions, Indocin is sometimes prescribed for other medical conditions such as ankylosing spondylitis, bursitis, tendinitis, and certain types of arthritis including osteoarthritis.

It is important to note that Indocin should only be used under the guidance and prescription of a healthcare professional, as it does carry potential side effects and may interact with other medications. Patients should always consult their physician for the appropriate dosage and duration of treatment for their specific condition.

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